Instabilities and c haotic b ehaviour in shear b anding c om

In the Syriac and Arabic versions, the title of this book is "The Book of the Creation", because it begins with an account of the creation of all things; and is such an account, and so good an one, as is not to be met with anywhere else: the Greek version calls it Genesis, and so we and other versions from thence; a nd that because it treats of the generation of all things, of the heavens, and t he earth, and all that are in them, and of the genealogy of men: it treats of th e first men, of the patriarchs before the flood, and after it to the times of Jo seph.

It is called the "first" book of Moses, because there are four more that f ollow; the name the Jewish Rabbins give to the whole is hrwt yvmwx hvmx, "the fi ve fifths of the law", to which the Greek word "pentateuch" answers; by which we commonly call these books, they being but one volume, consisting of five parts, of which this is the first. And that they were all written by Moses is generall y believed by Jews and Christians. Nor can Ezra be the author of the Pentateuchas Spinosa suspects; since it is plain these writings were in being before his time, in the times of Josiah, Amaziah, yea, of David, and also of Joshua, 2Ch 3 nay, they are even referred to in the book of Ezra as the writings of MosesEzr to which may be added, in proof of the same, De Nor are there an y other writings of his authentic; what are ascribed to him, as the Analepsis of Moses, his Apocalypse, and his Last Will and Testament, are apocryphal.

That th is book of Genesis particularly was written by him, is evident from the testimon y of Philip, and even of our Lord Jesus Christ, who both testify that he wrote c oncerning the Messiah, Joh as he did in this book, where he speaks of him a s the seed of the woman that should break the serpent's head; as the seed of Abr aham, in whom all the nations of the earth should be blessed; and as the Shiloh, to whom the gathering of the people should be, Ge Nor is there any reason to believe that he wrote this book from the annals of the patriarchs, since it does not appear, nor is it very probable, that they had any; nor from traditions delivered down from one to another, from father to son, which is more probable, considering the length of the lives of the patriarchs: but yet such a variety o f particulars respecting times, places, persons, their genealogies and circumsta nces, so nicely and exactly given, can scarcely be thought to be the fruit of me mory; and much less is it to be imagined that he was assisted in it by Gabriel, when he lived in solitude in Midian: but it is best of all to ascribe it to divi ne inspiration, as all Scripture is by the apostle, 2Ti for who else but Go d could have informed him of the creation, and the manner and order in which eve ry creature was brought into being, with a multitude of things recorded in this book?

And the chapter is concluded with a survey God took of all his works, and his approbation of them; all which were th e work of the sixth day, and closes the account of the creation in that space of time, Ge In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. These are sa id to be "created", that is, to be made out of nothing; for what pre-existent ma tter to this chaos could there be out of which they could be formed?

And the apo stle says, "through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear".

Heb It is in the plural number, and be ing joined to a verb of the singular, is thought by many to be designed to point unto us the mystery of a plurality, or trinity of persons in the unity of the d ivine essence: but whether or no this is sufficient to support that doctrine, wh ich is to be established without it; yet there is no doubt to be made, that all the three Persons in the Godhead were concerned in the creation of all things, s ee Ps The Jerusalem Targum renders it, "in wisdom God created"; see Pr and some of the ancients have interpret ed it of the wisdom of God, the Logos and Son of God.

Smegma Orient. Philolo g. Sepher Shorash. Golius, col. Smegma, p. Pesachim, fol. Genesis And the earth was without form, and void, It was not in the form it now is, otherwise it must have a form, as all matter has; it was a fluid matter, the watery parts were not separated from the earthy ones; it was not put into t he form of a terraqueous globe it is now, the sea apart, and the earth by itselfbut were mixed and blended together; it was, as both the Targums of Jonathan a nd Jerusalem paraphrase it, a waste and desert, empty and destitute of both men and beasts; and it may be added, of fishes and fowls, and also of trees, herbs, and plants.

The Egyptian. Thomas Chamlers in was the first to purpose that there is a ga p between verse 1 and 2. Into this gap he places a pre-Adamic age, about which t he scriptures say nothing.

Some great catastrophe took place, which left the ear th "without form and void" or ruined, in which state it remained for as many yea rs as the geologist required. However, the numerous rock layers that are the sup posed proof for these ages, were mainly laid down by Noah's flood.

In Ex w e read of a literal six day creation. No gaps, not even for one minute, otherwis e these would not be six normal days. Also, in Ro we read that death is the result of Adam's sin. Because the rock layers display death on a grand scale, t hey could not have existed before the fall of Adam. There is no direct evidence that the earth is much older than six thousand years.

However, we have the direc t eyewitness report of God himself that he made everything in six days. Tracing back through the biblical genealogies we can determine the age of the universe t o be about six thousand years with an error of not more than two per cent.Password Hide. Remember me. I agree to the Terms. Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password. Toggle navigation. Embed Script. Size px x x x x Start Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 CasandraNios Subscribe 0.

Computer Forensics?? Counterintelligence 6nd Espionage?? A Crime 9 Custice? B7 Drug cartels moving into the 3! Public Data ,n! I is hat a! Q are not assigned to cover "he only time ,! I and ,! CE -D. I -PDD. D million? IC Directory to? Imagine being told you have to deploy to a certain country to conduct an operation.As a commonly used method to enhance the ductility in bulk metallic glasses BMGsthe introduction of geometric constraints blocks and confines the propagation of the shear bands, reduces the degree of plastic strain on each shear band so that the catastrophic failure is prevented or delayed, and promotes the formation of multiple shear bands.

The clustering of multiple shear bands near notches is often interpreted as the reason for improved ductility. Experimental works on the shear band arrangements in notched metallic glasses have been extensively carried out, but a systematic theoretical study is lacking. Using instability theory that predicts the onset of strain localization and the free-volume-based finite element simulations that predict the evolution of shear bands, this work reveals various categories of shear band arrangements in double edge notched BMGs with respect to the mode mixity of the applied stress fields.

A mechanistic explanation is thus provided to a number of related experiments and especially the correlation between various types of shear bands and the stress state.

Similar to the concept of crack tip process zones, notch brittleness or ductility depends on the development of a clean process zone in the vicinity of the notch, which could be plastic deformation in metals or crack bridging or branching in composites, and a messy process zone right at the notch roots which are governed by damage processes on or below the microstructural length scales 12. For examples, notches may not deteriorate the composite failure strength when the crack bridging zone e.

The study of notch sensitivity in bulk metallic glasses BMGshowever, is much more complicated because of the localized deformation into shear bands, which can easily extend beyond the plastic zone estimated from continuum plasticity theory 345.

If the shear bands are not confined, either because the stress field is not decaying rapidly from the notch or due to the lack of geometric constraints, the resulting notch toughness will be low. Consequently, the degree of plastic strain on each shear band becomes low so that the transition from the shear band to a crack is delayed. The clustering of multiple shear bands in the vicinity of notch roots has been investigated extensively in experiments 67. The double edge notched samples under tensile condition have exhibited shear bands that connect the notches in Fig.

It is worth noting that experiments in Sarac et al. These two types of shear bands have not been found to co-exist, as understood by our schematic illustration in Fig. The semi-circular shear bands that connect the neighboring notches actually lead to out-of-plane shear offset, and these shear bands will grow into the bulk in an inclined direction off the sample surface normal.

The radial shear bands from the notch roots are believed to lead to surface ledges at the surface of the notch root. However, a mechanistic justification of such shear band arrangements has not been fully understood, and it has been suggested that these shear band patterns play an important role in understanding the notech sensitivity in recent experiments 78 In addition to these Mode I tension or compression tests, Hsueh et al.

As shown in Fig. The latter becomes less prominent in Fig. Based on the measured load-displacement curves, Hsueh et al. Micrographs are adapted from refs 14 and This work presents a mechanistic analysis of the shear band arrangements in double edge notched BMGs, with a focus on the geometric constraints and the dependence on the mode mixity of the applied load. As opposed to the vast number of continuum plasticity simulations 3481112131415our analysis has a direct connection to the shear banding process, including their initiation from the material instability point of view and the shear band evolution from the free-volume-based constitutive model.

Consider a double edge notched specimen, as given in Fig.Bartlett Quimby. Shear strength is a potentially limiting criteria for steel members. It must be investigated where a member is subjected to shear.

Understanding the behavior of steel members subject to shear will help you understand the SCM approach to ensuring that steel members have adequate shear strength. Internal shear force varies along the length of most bending members. The determination of the magnitude of internal shear at any given location is determined using principles of statics.

A common approach is to develop a shear diagram i. The distribution of elastic beam shear stress on a given cross section is determined by the following equation as derived in mechanics.

The graph of this equation over the height of a rectangular section and an "I" shaped section is shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. As can be seen for an I-shaped member, when the bending member is loaded in the plane of the web as shown in Figure 8. Hence, the web is designed to carry the shear forces in this case. When an I-shaped bending member is loaded perpendicular to the web, the shear forces are carried by stresses in the flanges which act as a pair of rectangular sections.

The maximum shear stress in this case equals 1. Comparing the magnitudes of the shearing stresses, note that the peak shear stress in a rectangular section for example, the flanges of an I-shaped member loaded perpendicular to the web is 1. In an I-shaped member loaded in the plane of the web, the peak shear stress is nearer to the average shear stress.

Consequently, we will find in the SCM different requirements for each plane of bending for I shaped members. In many steel shapes, the web can be quite slender, leading to shear buckling.

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Similar regions are experienced with plate shear buckling. A simple experiment with heavy paper card stock is good!

Hold opposing sides and apply a shear force. The sheet will buckle out of plane and at an angle that is approximately 45 degrees from the direction of applied shear.

This propensity to buckle is a function of the thickness of the plate and dimensions of the shear panel. Shear strength can be improved by adding plate stiffeners to prevent out-of-plane buckling of the web.Print Send Add Share. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes.

Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. Tran- Son- Tay not only for giving me the opportunity to finalize my education in USA but also for helping me since my arrival in Gainesville.

To Dr. Shyy Wei, I would like to extend my appreciation and respect for gving me the possibility to conduct my research in computational fluid dynamics with moving boundaries. As stated by Hobbes, "All thought is a kind of Computation. For Dr. Tran-Son-Tay and Dr. Shyy, I would like to quote one of my favorite thoughts, which is "When you follow an elephant, the dew cannot touch you.

While we were looking for a post-doctoral position, my former advisor, JeanClaude Lelievre, decided that it would be better for me to pursue my study in the USA and go for a PhD degree instead. I told him that this would be difficult because of the language barrier. His answer was that when I arrived in France, I had to go through difficulties, but I managed to overcome them, so I can succeed anywhere if I put my mind on it.

I thank professor Lelievre for believing in me. I would like to thank all the colleagues of the computational thermo-fluid group, in particular Marianne Francois, Inane Senocak, and the colleagues of the cellular mechanics and biorheology group. I would like to thank Patricia and Mark for all the years spent together.

I have a lot to write about Kathleen, but I can summarize it through Boorstin's thought, "So long as man marked his life only by the cycles of nature--the changing seasons, the waxing or waning moon--he remained a prisoner of nature. If he was to go his own way and fill his world with human novelties, he would have to make his own measures of time.

I thank them also for being there when I needed them he most. I thank my dad, N'Dri Bernard, and my uncle, Ipou Jean, for always being supportive of all decisions I have made through my years of education.Not a MyNAP member yet?

Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book.

The sun maintains the external engine that is responsible for the weather, surface erosion, and most oceanic processes. Radioactivity and primordial heat drive the internal engine that maintains the dynamic plate system and cre- ates global topography. Hydrologic science plays a fundamental role in key mechanisms by which the external and internal engines make the earth such a singular planet.

This chapter presents some critical and emerging areas in hydrologic science. It is not exhaustive; the intention is to convey the flavor of the challenges and frontiers that make hydrology so critical a field of study in understanding the earth system.

Toward this goal, the connection between hydrology and the earth's internal engine is explored. It is precisely through hydrologic processes that some of the most important interactions between the internal and the external engines occur.

The tectonic system and the hydrologic system come together in the earth's rigid outer skin, mainly in the upper 10 km of the continental crust.

Hydrologic processes play an important role in the tectonic system; for example, subsurface waters, in responding to changing thermal and stress conditions, can have a significant impact on the mechanics of earthquakes. The evolution of sedimentary basins and the genesis of ore deposits are fundamentally influenced by ground water flows operating on time scales of to years and spatial scales The vastness of the scales in- volved brings enormous variability in the properties of the physical system, and new models to understand transport processes and their media of occurrence are being explored.

The subsurface is also where one of the major environmental impacts of human activities takes place. This is the deposition of different types of waste and their water-borne migration from original deposit sites. The greatest concern lies in predicting the temporal evolution of a contaminant plume under highly heterogeneous soil and rock conditions, and where it is subject to a wide range of geochemical and biochemical transformations.

Fractured rocks and karst terrain present particularly difficult challenges in understanding solute transport processes. Within the upper part of the earth's crust, rocks undergo an important sequence of chemical and physical changes, collectively called weathering, which gradually convert the rocks to soil. Soil lies at the intersection of the two major systems of the external engine, the physical climate system and the biogeochemical cycles.

These two systems exchange energy and matter through their interactions, many of which are hy- drologically controlled. Whether adequate soils survive in which to grow crops; whether rivers are navigable; whether there is magnificent scenery: each depends on geomorphic processes driven by water. Much remains to be learned about the processes of erosion and sediment transport, including the effects of varying climate and land use.

Rivers are the conduits for the transport of the water, sediment, and nutrients that control the fertility of floodplains. A quantitative understanding of the mechanisms that will allow the prediction of long-term landscape evolution and the effects of major human inter- ventions is missing. How topography differentiates into channels and hillslopes is one of the key questions in its development. What are the unifying principles behind the three-dimensional network geometry?

These principles are central to the runoff-generating pro- cess, which is intimately linked to the growth and development of the drainage network. River runoff itself is a key flux in the physical climate system. It is an input to ocean dynamics and an output from the convergence of atmospheric water vapor.

This flux highlights the relationship of hydrology and climate. One challenge we still face is to improve our understanding of the interaction between the hydrologic cycle and the general circulation of the ocean-atmosphere system.

There is a. Unanswered questions relate to the at- mospheric pathways of evaporated moisture and to the sensitivities of atmospheric dynamics to the exchanges of heat and moisture between land and atmosphere.

The operational tools in these studies are the atmospheric general circulation models GCMs that are being developed to reproduce the basic patterns and processes of atmospheric systems. Only recently have these models been used to study the spatial and temporal patterns in the atmospheric and surface branches of the hydrologic cycle.Strong magnetic fields in magnetospheres of neutron stars especially magnetars and other astrophysical objects may release their energy in violent, intense episodes of magnetic reconnection.

While reconnection has been studied extensively, the extreme field strength near neutron stars introduces new effects: synchrotron cooling and electron-positron pair production.

We show that reconnection in this regime can efficiently convert magnetic energy to X-ray and gamma-ray radiation and thus power bright high-energy astrophysical flares. Rapid radiative cooling causes strong plasma and magnetic field compression in compact plasmoids.

In the most extreme cases, the field can approach the critical quantum limit, leading to copious pair production. Recent high energy gamma-ray observations of both single supernova remnants and superbubbles, together with observations of supernovae, star formation regions, and local cosmic ray composition, now provide an integrated framework tying together the sources, injection, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic rays, so that it is possible to determine their relative contributions to cosmic ray acceleration for all but the very highest energies.

The Martian obliquity cycle is predominately influenced by Solar and Jovian tidal forces.

01 - Genesis

We focused on Arabia Terra, a region especially well-suited for studying glacial migration due to its location in the northern mid-latitude degrees North, degrees East zone, and its heavily cratered terrain. We determined the ages of our craters in order to establish a time-domain link between the Martian obliquity cycle and glacial migration; we found the average crater age to be roughly 2 billion years old.

Interacting galaxies provide us with an excellent laboratory for studying a number of physical phenomena associated with these processes. By analysing radial velocity profiles and by fitting a kinematic model of the observed velocity field, we confirm the literature result that NGC consists of one single body instead of two objects.

Lec 42: Shear Band 1

Based on these new results, and on previously published information, we propose that NGC and UV are a pair of interacting galaxies. The interaction between the two could have triggered the star formation in NGC UV and increased the star formation in the northeast side of NGC We report the results of a hr photometric campaign of a rapidly oscillating Ap star, J TYC The B data show this star to be among the highest amplitude roAp stars, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 24 mmag. Modelling of the pulsation frequency at Our knowledge of the magnetism in white dwarfs is based on an observational dataset that is biased in favour of stars with very strong magnetic fields.

Most of the field measurements available in the literature have a relatively low sensitivity, while current instruments allow us to detect magnetic fields of white dwarfs with sub-kG precision. With the aim of obtaining a more complete view of the incidence of magnetic fields in degenerate stars, we have started a long-term campaign of high-precision spectropolarimetric observations of white dwarfs. We have considered a sample of 48 stars, of which five are known magnetic or suspected magnetic stars, and obtained new longitudinal magnetic field measurements with a mean uncertainty of about 0.

Overall, in the course of our survey the results of which have been partially published in papers devoted to individual stars we have discovered one new weak-field magnetic white dwarf, confirmed the magnetic nature of another, found that a suspected magnetic star is not magnetic, and suggested two new candidate magnetic white dwarfs.

Even combined with data previously obtained in the literature, our sample is not sufficient yet to reach any final conclusions about the actual incidence of very weak magnetic fields in white dwarfs, but we have set the basis to achieve a homogeneous survey of an unbiased sample of white dwarfs.

This study will help the optimisation of future observations. We begin with a general survey of the available data, including a description of the energy spectrum, the nuclear composition, and the distribution of arrival directions.

At this point we also give a synopsis of experimental techniques. After that, we introduce the fundamentals of cosmic ray acceleration and energy loss during propagation, with a view of discussing the conjectured nearby sources.

Next, we survey the state of the art regarding the high- and ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos which should be produced in association with the observed cosmic rays. These neutrinos can constitute key messengers identifying currently unknown cosmic accelerators, possibly in the distant universe, because their propagation is not influenced by background photon or magnetic fields. Subsequently, we summarize the phenomenology of cosmic ray air showers.

We describe the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from collider data to ultra-high energies and the main electromagnetic processes that govern the longitudinal shower evolution. Armed with these two principal shower ingredients and motivation from the underlying physics, we describe the different methods proposed to distinguish the primary particle species.

In the end, we explore how ultra-high-energy cosmic rays can be used as probes of beyond standard model physics models.

In this chapter we outline some of the basic understanding of the chemistry that accompanies planet formation. We discuss the basic physical environment which dictates the dominant chemical kinetic pathways for molecule formation.

We end with a discussion of how chemistry influences planet formation along with how to probe the link between formation and ultimate atmospheric composition for gas giants and terrestrial worlds. In this article we review the methods used to determine the gas and dust masses of protoplanetary disks, with an emphasis on the lesser characterized total gas mass.

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